Introduction

Sleep disorders (sleep apnea) are among the fastest rising ailments, affecting all age groups from children, young, upwardly mobile to working professionals and supermoms (juggling to balance between professional and personal life) of today. Breathing related anomalies is one of the many factors associated with sleep disorder. In this the external breathing (respiratory muscular movement / change in lung volume) is affected due to imbalance in the respiratory control system of the brain. It adversely affects the physical and mental health of a patient.

Causes

The breathing problem, as discussed generously when the respiratory control part of the brain that actively monitors the pauses (apnea) of breathing is not functioning well due to the disparity in the blood carbon dioxide level and the neurological feedback mechanism. Scientist researches show that caffeine (tea and coffee), cigarette 'component like nicotine, tar, benzene and benzo (a) pyrene, along with depression, anxiety, and low social interaction followed by lifestyle choices – like long and stressful hours at work and unhealthy eating habits are the responsible factors.

Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms of breathing sleep disorder, if left undiagnosed for long, are clearly visible through the body language of the patient. Daytime fatigue, a slower reaction time, and vision problems are quite common that translate into his behavior instantly, and he / she may become irritating and violent. Inadequacy of oxygen in the blood also affects the brain functionality. The capacity to execute tasks, pay attention, work and process information, learn and interpret subject / situation, etc. gets badly affected.

Diagnosis and Lab findings

Initial diagnosis implications documentation of the disease that may include family history, life-style, symptoms, general physical exam, and family members' opinion. At times, doctors may recommend going for Polysomnography (PSG) test. It is usually carried out by season technician at Sleep Labs. Actually, this is a multi-parameter test that measures the respiratory airflow and effort through mouth and nose and oxygen level in blood, along with the activity of brain (EEG), eye, (EOG), muscle, heart (ECG), etc . Medicine doctor interprets the PSG test (s) to decide whether you have sleep apnea, if yes, then the doctor will correlate various values, to conclude the cause and severity of the problem and method of treatment.

Treatment and Prevention

Relaxation training

The patient is asked to sequentially relax and relax the body's major muscle groups while focusing on and contrasting sensations of tension and relaxation.

Cognitive therapy

Identify and correct appropriate thoughts and beliefs that may contribute to sleeping disorder. Social interaction, entertainment, stress-free work environment, etc. help to recover / avoid sleeping disorder.

Stimulus control (SC)

Stressful situations or watching television, etc. can interfere with the smooth sleep process. So the patient is advised to reserve bedroom for sleep, sex, and dressing only. Also should change life-style to have proper sleep at night.

Sleep hygiene

Sleep hygiene refers to practices, habits, and environmental factors that are important for getting sound sleep. The patient is advised to sleep in proper position, avoid the intake of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol, sleeping pills, and other sedatives.

Device Control

Sometimes medical equipment can be used to keep the passage of air open during the sleep.